We showed that transcriptionally generated supercoiling regulates loop formation. The girl’s blowing represents the force of transcriptionally generated supercoiling that promotes loop extrusion (bubbles forming) through cohesin (ring of stick). Bubbles depict different nuclear topologies. Excess of cohesin, supercoiling, and loops leads to chromatin blending (upper bubbles), while inhibition of transcription or topoisomerases brings decreased supercoiling and chromatin compaction (lower bubbles). Cover art from Laura Martin.

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